Chefs : Sentiment d’appartenance versus pouvoir et politique

  • Simonne Pauwels CREDO, France
Keywords: Pacific, chiefs, belonging, Micronesia, Fiji, Solomon Islands


As a guideline to reading the articles of the thematic section “Chiefs of the Pacific,” this introduction suggests differentiating sacred chiefs and secular chiefs, understanding them respectively as a person receiving respect and supplying blessings in a hierarchical order and as the same person (or another) when the context changes to attribute political and/or economic power to him or her and put him or her at the summit of a social stratification. The four articles illustrate how this distinction became particularly useful after colonization.


Balandier, Georges, 1967. Anthropologie politique. Paris, Presses universitaire de France.

Bazin, Jean, 1988. « Genèse de l’Etat et formation d’un champ politique : le royaume de Segu ». Revue française de science politique, 38(5) : 709–719. doi: 10.3406/rfsp.1988.411163

Brison, Karen, 2007. Our Wealth Is Loving each Other: Self and Society in Fiji. Lanham, MD, Lexington.

de Heusch, Luc, 2002. Du Pouvoir: Anthropologie politique des societés d’Afrique centrale. Nanterre, Société d’Ethnologie.

de Heusch, Luc, 2006. « Anthropologie et science(s) politique(s) ». Raisons politiques, 2(22) : 23–48. doi: 10.3917/rai.022.48

Dumont, Louis, [1966] 1980. Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications, édition anglaise complète révisée. Chicago/London, University of Chicago Press.

Evans-Pritchard, Edward Evan, 1940. The Nuer. A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Evans-Pritchard, Edward Evan, et Meyer Fortes, [1940] 1970. African Political Systems, London/Oxford/New York, Oxford University Press.

Fison, Lorimer, 1881. « Land Tenure in Fiji ». Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 10 : 332–352. doi: 10.2307/2841531

Fraenkel, Jon, et Stewart Firth (dir.), 2007. From Election to Coup in Fiji. The 2006 Campaign and Its Aftermath. Suva, Institute of Pacific Studies/Canberra, Asia-Pacific Press.

Fraenkel, Jon, Stewart Firth, et Brij Lal (dir.), 2009. The 2006 Military Takeover in Fiji : A Coup to End All Coups? State, Society and Governance in Melanesia 4. Canberra, ANU E Press.

Hocart, Arthur Maurice, 1914. « Mana ». Man, 14(46) : 97–101. doi: 10.2307/2788392

———, 1952. The Northern States of Fiji. London, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.

Hooper, Steven, 1996. « Who Are the Chiefs. Chiefship in Lau, Eastern Fiji ». In Richard Feinberg et Karen Ann Watson-Gegeo (dir.), Leadership and Change in the Western Pacific. Essays Presented to Sir Raymond Firth on the Occasion of His 90th Birthday, p. 239–271. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology 66. London, Athlone Press.

Jolly, Margaret, 1992. « Custom and the Way of the Land: Past and Present in Vanuatu and Fiji ». Oceania 62(4) : 330–354. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.1992.tb00361.x

Kaplan, Martha, 1988. « The Coups in Fiji: Colonial Contradictions and the Post-colonial Crisis ». Critique of Anthropology 7(3) : 93–116. doi: 10.1177/0308275X8800800306

Kawai, Tochimitsu, 1998. Chieftainship in Southern Oceania. Amagasaki, Japan, Japan–Oceania Society for Cultural Exchanges.

Keesing, Roger M., 1984. « Rethinking ‘Mana’ ». Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1) : 137–156. doi:10.1086/jar.40.1.3629696

Lal, Brij, 2002. « Constitutional Engineering in Post-Coup Fiji ». In Andrew Reynolds (dir.), The Architecture of Democracy Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy, p. 267–292. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Lal, Brij, 2006. Islands of Turmoil: Elections and Politics in Fiji. Canberra, Asia Pacific Press.

Lawson, Stephanie, 1996. Tradition versus Democracy in the South Pacific: Fiji, Tonga and Western Samoa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Lawson, Stephanie et Elizabeth Hagan Lawson, 2015. « Chiefly Leadership in Fiji: Past, Present and Future », SSGM Discussion Paper 2015/5, Australian National University, 1–17.

Lienhardt, Godfrey, [1961] 1988. Divinity and Experience. The Religion of the Dinka. New York, Oxford University Press.

MacClancy, Jeremy, 1986. « Mana: An Anthropological Metaphor for Island Melanesia ». Oceania, 57(2) : 142–153.

Muller, Jean-Claude, 1980. Le Roi bouc émissaire. Pouvoir et rituel chez les Rukuba du Nigéria centra. Québec, Serge Fleury.

Newbury, Colin, 2008. « Chieftaincy in Transition: Secularisation and Tribute in Pre-Cession Fiji ». Journal of Pacific History, 43(2) : 167–187. doi:10.1080/00223340802281502

Parke, Aubrey, 2014. Degei’s Descendants. Spirits, Place and People in Pre-Cession Fiji, Matthew Spriggs and Deryck Scarr (dir.). Canberra, ANU Press.

Pauwels, Simonne (dir.), 2015. « Nouveaux regards sur les chefferies fidjiennes ». Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 141 : 187–282. doi: 10.4000/jso.7323.

Petersen, Glenn, 2015. « At the Intersection of Chieftainship and Constitutional Government: Some Comparisons from Micronesia ». Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 141 : 255–265.

Quain, Buell, 1948. Fijian Village: An Anthropologist’s Account of Fijian Institutions, Ethics, and Personalities. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Rokowaqa, Epeli, 1926. « Ai tukutuku kei Viti », Methodist Missionary Magazine (Avril): 1–84.

Ross, Malcolm, Andrew Pawley, et Meredith Osmond, 2003. The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic. The Culture and Environment of Ancestral Oceanic Society, 2. The Physical Environment, Pacific Linguistics. Canberra, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU E Press.

Rutz, Henry, 1997. « Occupying the Headwaters of Tradition: Rhetorical Strategies of Nation Making in Fiji ». In R. Foster (dir.), Nation Making: Emergent Identities in Postcolonial Melanesia, p. 71–93. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Sahlins, Marshall, 1981. « The Stranger-King: Or Dumézil among the Fijians ». Journal of Pacific History, 16(3) : 107–132. doi:10.1080/00223348108572419

Scarr, Deryck, 1973. The Majesty of Colour: A Life of Sir John Bates Thurston, Volume One, I, the Very Bayonet. Canberra, Australian National University.

Shore, Bradd, 1989. « Mana and Tapu ». In A. Howard and R. Borofsky (dir.), Developments in Polynesian Ethnology, p. 137–173. Honolulu, University of Hawai’i Press.

Tcherkézoff, Serge. 2009, « Hierarchy Is Not Inequality – In Polynesia for Instance ». In K.M. Rio et O.H. Smedal (dir.), Hierarchy: Persistence and Transformation in Social Forms, p. 299–330. New York/Oxford, Berghahn Books.

Tomlinson, Matt, et Sekove Bigitibau, 2016. « Theologies of Mana and Sau in Fiji », In Matt Tomlinson et Sekove Bigitibau (dir.), New Mana, p. 237–256. Canberra, ANU EPress.

Tomlinson, Matt, et Ty Tengan (dir.), 2016. New Mana. Canberra, ANU E Press.

Tuwere, Ilaitia S., 2002. Vanua: Towards a Fijian Theology of Place. Suva, Institute of Pacific Studies at the University of the South Pacific/Auckland, College of St John the Evangelist.

Walter, Michael H. B., 1966. Aspects of Political Evolution in Fiji, thèse de doctorat, Oxford University.

White, Geoffrey et Lamont Lindstrom, 1997. « Introduction: Chiefs Today ». In G. White et L. Lindstrom (dir.), Chiefs Today: Traditional Pacific Leadership and the Postcolonial State, p. 1–18. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press.

How to Cite
Pauwels, S. (1). Chefs : Sentiment d’appartenance versus pouvoir et politique. Anthropologica, 61(2), 191-199.
Thematic Section: Chiefs of the Pacific